The roots of hip hop dance culture come from the West African and African-American music. Important contributions have artists like The Last Pouits, Jalal Mansur Nuriddin and Gil Scott-Heron, whose jazz pieces influence the society in the period after the civil rights movement. The lack of publicity of African Americans after the censorship of the “black radio” in the 1960s was replaced with the bolder lyrics in the music of blues, soul and funk genres. They express the rebellious spirit of the oppressed citizens of the United States. In all music styles that have come from the blacks, there is a fusion of rhythm and speech. These are inherited traits from the traditions of the societies of West Africa, as well as that of the African-American community. The verbal art is well developed in the chants that are common for the African-American communities using melodic and rhythmic speech, clapping to the beat, snapping fingers, gestures, pauses and shouts, encouraging and praying, increased tone, and extension and stressing on a syllable of a word. Rhymes and slang find their vocation in the birth of Rock-and-Roll, Soul, Swing and later in the Go-Go music. Half-speaking, half- singing is noticed in some styles like these long ago, but the perfect image of this type of music appears with the emergence of rap music. Street talk is reborn in the culture of hip hop dance.
Old school hip hop dance(from the early 1970s to 1986)
Old school hip-hop is the initial period of this culture, which stems from the so-called block parties in Bronx.It begins in the 1970s with the setting in of DJ-ing in the face of DJ Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaata, DJ Grandmaster Flash. The sounding of rap music in this period is fun and bonding. At that time the four elements of hip-hop culture begin to stand out (B-Boying, MC-ing, DJ-ing, Writing).
“Golden Age” of hip hop dance (1986-1992)
The Golden age of hip hop begins with the promotion of Run-DMC and their album “Raising in Hell” and ends with the appearance of G-Funk in 1992.The rhythm is fast paced and the lyrics – sarcastic and even offensive. It affects social problems and becomes a form of an artistic social protest.
The first commercial white rappers – The Beasty Boys cause furore with their behavior and bohemian themes. The best known representatives of the beginning of the period are LL Cool J, The Fat Boys, the duo Eric B & Rakim and Run-DMC.
The second half of the Golden Age of hip hop dance(1988-1992), however, sees a sharp change of standards in terms of topics in the music. This is the time when hardcore / alternative rap appears with its variations: political rap, conscious rap, Islamic-nationalistic rap. Once designated as “black noise”, hip hop describes itself as a cultural and political voice of youth even beyond the ghetto. In songs by Public Enemy as “911 is a Joke”, “Fight the Power” and “Hitler Day” there is a direct opposition to the “white America.” The songs of this time concern the exploitation of the blacks, other socioeconomic and religious issues. Groups as Boogie Down Productions (BDP) preach nationalism, safer sex and denial of drug use. Other representatives for the period are DJ Polo & Kool Moe Dee, Big Daddy Kane, Paris, Tim Dog, The Luniz.
Ice-T is considered a “political” rapper because of his single “Killers”, released in 1984.
In the second half of the Golden Age another main event happens that predetermines the new meaning to rap music –gangsta rap style is born.
Overall, in the 1980’s the hip hop dance scene is represented mainly by the performers in New York, while in the West without much media attention, work groups like Uncle Jamms Army, Egyptian Lover, Arabian Prince, but World Class Wreckin` Cru (Dr. Dre’s first group), LA Dream Team, Toddy Tee, Ice-T and others. But in 1989 with a bang, screaming “Fuck the Police” amid the sound of police sirens, the gangsta / hardcore rap group NWA (Niggaz With Attitudes) appear.
Gangsta rap from the West (Los Angeles) directs weapons to America’s face and the MC-s from the birthplace of hip hop scene of the East (New York) silently watch the acts of the West coast rappers. In the early1990s the more harmonious G-funk (gangsta funk) has risen – Warren G, Nate Dogg, Eazy-E, Tha Dogg Pound as its representatives. The pungent debut album of Dr. Dre (NWA), “The Chronic”, 1992 “legitimizes” the cult of marijuana, alcohol and the treatment of women as ‘things’ and becomes one of the most successful projects of gangsta rap.
New school hip hop dance(1992-1998)
New school hip hop begins in 1992 and ends almost unnoticeably in 1998. It is defined as new and revolutionary as the messages of their music are quite different from those of the sharp gangsta rap. The new school rappers try to “rethink” actions and mistakes. In this new period a number of artists of hip hop culture try to explain “what is hip hop,” what does it mean, how it is used and whom it serves.
Strong ties within the community are the leading motive for hip hop dance in the mid 1990s. Bickering on commercialization against ‘keepin` it real’, introduced a new sensuality in the hip-hop the Underground hip-hop appears.
In the midst of the New school era, in 1996 appears an organization called Temple of Hip Hop. It aims to protect the hip-hop generation by developing the hip-hop culture as a legitimate community of prosperous and peaceful people. It teaches of ancient spiritual dedication and knowledge in the language of modern hip-hop culture. Members strive to transcend their art of simply fun and to cultivate knowledge, dignity and self-esteem. Other priorities are discussions about corporate greed and selfish and discriminate exploitation of the intellectual achievement of hip-hop culture. Called the Teacha, KRS-One devotes his activities to music, school lectures on useful social issues, preservation of the essence of hip-hop culture and the moral values that it offers.
According to KRS-One hip-hop culture to the present day should be considered in its definition as follows: “hip-hop expansion includes: Break dance, MC-ing (rap), Graffiti Art, DJ-ing, Beatboxing, street fashion, street knowledge, street language , entrepreneurship that supports street life. ”
The most important representatives of the New School are: Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx, Bone-Thugs-n-Harmony, Cypress Hill, A Tribe Called Quest, Nas, Funkdoobiest, Fugees, Naughty By Nature, House of Pain and others.